Porter’s five forces analysis is a framework for analyzing the level of competition within an industry and business strategy development. It draws upon industrial organization (IO) economics to derive five forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore the attractiveness of an industry. Attractiveness in this context refers to the overall industry profitability. An “unattractive” industry is one in which the combination of these five forces acts to drive down overall profitability. A very unattractive industry would be one approaching “pure competition”, in which available profits for all firms are driven to normal profit.
- Threat of New Entrants
- Threat of Substitutes
- Bargaining Power of Customers
- Bargaining Power of Suppliers
- Industry Rivalry
- Porter’s five forces include three forces from ‘horizontal’ competition: the threat of substitute products or services, the threat of established rivals, and the threat of new entrants; and two forces from ‘vertical’ competition: the bargaining power of suppliers and the bargaining power of customers.